1. Problems facing Byzantine Empire (600s-1100) - the Empire lost a lot of territory from expensive wars, which put them at an economic and territorial disadvantage. As a result of this, they had constant pressure from militaries from the north and south, preventing any advances from occurring. 2. Cyril and Methodius- Brothers who went on a successful mission in the Slavs of Moravia. Developed a written language called Cyrillic that was used by the Byzantine Christians 3. Charlemagne- "Charles the Great" first to be called emperor in Western Europe in over 300 years. Turned Europe's focus from the Mediterranean to the North and West. 4. Feudalism/manorial system- Feudalism means giving land for military service. Europe is referred to as a "feudal society". Kings and lords would give trusted servants land if the servant swore to military service. 5. Investiture Controversy- the medieval struggle between the church and the lay lords to control clergy-involved appointments 6. Impact of Christian monasticism- monks' lives were devoted to prayer and working. They copied texts without a printing machine, so they were a heavy impact to economy. They offered learning centers that people went to for protection. 7. Emergence of the Russian State- Germanic peoples with Iranian and Slavic people migrated to eastern Europe. They spoke eastern Slavic languages. They traded items from the forest, and became successful through trading those items. Coins traded from Varangian ships also provided luxury and was used for jewelry. 8. Agricultural revolution of the High Middle Ages- new plows and horse collars were among the technological advances that emerged in Western Europe. The plow used a sharp knife-like blade that cut through the soil and a curved one that flipped it over, which made it possible to farm harder and wetter soils and clays. The new horse collar transferred traction from an animal's throat to its shoulders, making it...
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