Bible Notes

Topics: New Testament, Jesus, Christianity Pages: 24 (5052 words) Published: June 17, 2013
Inter-Testamental Period (432 B.C.- 4 B.C.)
Over 400 years
Malachi- written 432 B.C.
Christ born 4 B.C.
Persian Period (450-330 B.C.)
Hellenistic (Greek) Period (330-166 B.C.)
Alexander the Great
After his reign, the kingdom was divided into 4 parts for his 4 major generals. Ptolemy ruled Egypt
Seleucid ruled Palestine and North Syria
Hasmonean (Maccabean) Period (166-63 B.C.)
Jews revolt against Hellenism
Maccabeans-Jewish loyal family
Roman Period (63 B.C. into the A.D.s)
Romans want the Holy Land for military reasons
Pompey conquered Jerusalem
Hellenistic Period (330-166 B.C.)
Alexander the Great defeated the Persians
Conquered Palestine in 332 B.C.
Policy of “Hellenization” (Greek culture)
His empire was divided among his 4 generals.
The Seleucids
Antiochus IV “Epiphanes” (175-164 B.C.)
Tried to destroy Judaism and plant Hellenism
Tried to destroy the Torah
Required offerings to Zeus
Erected a statue of Zeus at the temple in Jerusalem
Sacrificed a pig on the altar of the temple
This led to the Jewish “Maccabean” revolt.
Hasmonean Period (166-63 B.C.)
Mattathias destroyed a Greek altar in his village, thus setting off the revolt in 166 B.C. Hasmonean Dynasty was the priestly family within the Maccabeans Roman Period (63 B.C. to the A.D.s)
Pompey, a great Roman general, conquered Jerusalem
Killed priests
Entered the most Holy Place in the temple
The Jews never forgave the Romans for the sacrilege
Herod the Great (37 B.C.-4 B.C.)
Idumean (racially close to a Jew)
Hired by the Roman government as a “civil servant”
Octavius Caesar Augustus (27 B.C.-14 A.D.)
His accomplishments:
Peace, the Pax Romana (27 B.C.- 180 A.D.)
Common Culture
Shared language
Stable economy
Good and safe transportation
Son of Julius Caesar
“August” is a divine title so they called him Augustus
Example of Roman Influence
Herod and the Herodian family
Tax collectors (Matthew 5:46)
Going the 2nd mile
Jewish Literature Produced During this Period
Septuagint (LXX) ca. 250 B.C.
Greek translation of the Bible
Apocrypha: books written during persecutuion; do appear in Catholic Bible 1&2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, add to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach, Baruch, Literature of Jeremian, Prayer of Azariah, Song of the 3 Young Men, Bel and the Dragon, Susanna, 1&2 Maccabees (Good history of the revolt, NOT the Bible), Prayer of Manasses

Dead Sea Scrolls, discovered in 1947
All of the Old Testament
“Isaiah A” scroll: most important one
Social Developments
The Diaspora (dispersion) of the Jews
Emergence of Sects
Sadducees: want to protect position, no belief in eternal life, sell outs to Romans Pharisees: Loyal to Moses’ law until death, legalists
Essenes: Qumran, get out of society rather than face the pressures of it Herodians: turn coat Jews, Loyal to Romans
Zealots: “terrorists” of the day-so fiercely loyal to Jewish culture that they would not mind knifing a Roman soldier in the back The Temple
Center of Social life for Jews: courtyard

The “Synoptics”
Matthew, Mark and Luke provide only a brief insight ( a synopsis) into Jesus’ life and teachings, but it’s enough We don’t have a complete and full biography…maybe 50 days of Jesus’ life total Synoptic Problem

Similarity in arrangement
Similarity in style and wording
Yet differences among the gospels
Synoptic Gospels
Mark has 677 verses, 70 of which are unique (1/10)
Matthew has 1,070 verses, 330 of which are unique (1/3)
Luke has 1,150 verses, 520 of which are unique (1/2)
Matthew and Mark: 230Mt, 50Mk
Matthew and Luke: 170Mt, 50Lk, Quella (other)
Mark and Luke: 170Mk, 230Lk
350 verses in common
These gospels allow us to see Jesus’ life from different viewpoints (vectors) Gospel of Mark
Author: John Mark (Jewish)
Traveled with Paul and Barnabus on the 1st missionary journey Date: 50s or 60s (before the destruction of the temple in AD 70) Place of...
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