The Stalemated Seventies
Sources of Stagnation
Sudden slump in productivity was attributed to the increasing presence in the work force of women and teenagers who had fewer skills than adult males and were less likely to take full time, long-term jobs-some blamed it on new machinery but no one knows for sure. 2.
During Nixon’s presidency, Americans experienced the first serious inflation since the immediate post World War II years. Nixon “Vietnamese” the War
He could be brittle and testy in the face of opposition yet his broad knowledge and thoughtful expertise in foreign affairs was valuable. 2.
Vietnamization policy was announced-it would withdraw the 540,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam 3.
Nixon Doctrine thus evolved.
Proclaimed that the U.S. would honor its existing defense commitments that in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large bodies of American ground troops •
Nixon sought to end the war without further spilling of American blood •
War had become grotesquely unpopular, even among troops in the field Cambodianizing the Vietnam War
On April 29, 1970 Nixon ordered American forces to join with the South Vietnamese in cleaning out enemy sanctuaries in officially neutral Cambodia •
This caused protests, Nixon withdrew the troops after only two months •
But still deepened the bitterness between the right wing and left wing groups 2.
The Senate repealed the Gulf of Tonkin blank check
To pacify America’s youth they shortened the dilatability period and lowered the voting age to eighteen.
Nixon’s Détente with Beijing (Peking) and Moscow
Nixon hoped to enlist the aid of the Soviet Union and China in pressuring North Vietnam into peace. •
Nixon visited communist China in February 1972
Then he went to Moscow in May and ushered an era of détente or relaxed tension with the two communist powers 2.
The U.S. band the USSR started to slow the armistice and agreed to a series of arms-reduction negotiations •
Nixon’s diplomacy ceased the Cold War but was still anti-communist A New Team on the Supreme Bench
Several court rulings sought to prevent abusive police tactics but appealed to conservatives to coddle criminals and subvert law and order •
Conservatives also objected to the court’s views on religion •
Public schools could not require prayer or bible reading 2.
From 1954 on, the court came under relentless criticism
President Nixon sought appointees who would strictly interpret the constitution, cease “meddling” in social and political questions and not coddle radicals or criminals Nixon on the Home Front
Surprisingly, Nixon presided over expansion of welfare programs like food stamps and medicade •
He also implemented the Philadelphia Plan requiring goals and time-tables for hiring blacks •
Protected groups against discrimination
The actions of Nixon and the court opened employment and educational opportunities for minorities and women •
Cities protested these actions as “reverse discrimination” 3.
Environmental Protection Agency created in 1970
First Earth Day April 22, 1970
Clean Air Act of 1970 and Endangered Species Act of 1973 passed. The EPA stood on the front line of the battle for ecological sanity 4.
Warned about inflation, Nixon imposed a 90-day wage and price freeze, took the nation off the gold standard and devalued the dollar The Nixon Landslide of 1972
The Democratic candidate was George McGovern
Nixon won the election in a landslide
Shaky peace with Vietnam at the time
The Secret Bombing of Cambodia and the Wars Power Act
In July America was shocked to learn that the U.S. Air Force had secretly induced some 3,500 bombing raids against North Vietnam •
While they were going on, American officials, including the president had sworn that Cambodian neutrality was being respected 2.
Congressional opposition to the expansion of presidential war-making powers led to the war...
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