African History Class (Nov 7th 2013)
Legacy of Colonialism:
-Nation building: problem of ethnicity. Since 1997- DRC civil war, ethnic warfare. 1. Struggle of distribution 2. Struggle of domination. (How to distribute resources). (Who would control the state?) Ethnicity between 1960’s-1980’s there was a deliberation to repress ethnicity by Africa leaders. 1990’s –rise of politicized ethnicity (ethnic political parties). They struggle for the interests of their particular ethnic community. -Also in 1990s was the rise of an ethnic state. Ethiopia- political power is distributed based on ethnic groups. -Militarization of ethnicity: rise of ethnic militias that create wars/civil wars/violence. Ex: Sierra Leone, Liberia, & Rwanda (genocide in 1994). Also DRC. Ex: Somalia- became a heaven for radically religious activities. In 1991- there were clan warfare’s that destroyed the state. “Me against my brother” “me and my brother against my family.” “My family against my clan” “my clan against the state” Another Legacy of Colonialism:
-Nature of the state
-Mode of government.
-State capable or appropriate for delivering viable development and democracy. ] Democracy in Africa
South Africa- Since 1994 with election of Medina.
Botswana & Mauritius- areas with a longer history of democracy. (single party system but there are elections). Since 1960s. Ghana- since 1960s.
The 1990s: 3rd Wave of democratization.
Almost every African country was affected EXCEPT Libya and Sudan. In Egypt even though there were elections only one person was voted into office each time. Mubarak- was in power for 30 years. Always was elected. Authoritarian government. Elections do not mean the fostering of a democratic system.
Challenges why Democracy does not take hold in some African countries? 1960s-1980’s: Single party dictatorship. Autocracy : go back to the legacy of colonialism. 1. Europeans represented...
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