Political systems

Topics: Democracy, Political party, Elections Pages: 30 (7882 words) Published: December 23, 2013
POLITICAL SYSTEMS

Presidential systems
executive power = president
legislative power = unicameral or bicameral parliament
both have legitimacy derived from people
USA
president is the only executive, the only one responsible
president is also the prime minister and the lead symbol of the state president cannot dissolve (rozpustit) parliament
parliament cannot dismiss president (only impeachment)
system of checks and balances – limits of powers – absolute separation of powers Hard to say who wins, if there is a conflict between the president and the parliament, because they have the same legitimacy. Army decides many times. That’s why this system isn’t good for new democratic states. In 1995

Conflict in USA: President Clinton vs. Congress. Budgetary question. Clinton wanted a socially friendly budget (it was close to elections). Congress changed it to an unfriendly budget. Clinton used veto and proposed again – all the same again and again. It was not signed at all. Clinton had no money – state administration was closed. No state officials at all. At the end Clinton signed the proposal of Republicans. Who won? US-opinion is that Clinton won, because he accepted compromise and so is a responsible politician.

Parliamentary systems
head of state = president or monarch - legitimacy derived from the parliament monarch- very limited power, symbol of the state
executive power = prime minister + cabinet
legislative power = parliament
parliament is elected directly
prime minister with his cabinet has to pass the “vote of confidence” (normally at the beginning) on the other hand they can face the “vote of no-confidence” president can dissolve the parliament
parliamentary systems are normally stable
example: CR, GER, HUN, IT

Semi-presidential systems
executive power = president + prime minister
legislative power = parliament
president and parliament are both directly elected
president is mostly weak – Slovakia, Poland, Ireland, Iceland, Finland special case is suprapresidentialism: Russia
strong powers of the president
president in Russia proposed something, Duma vetoed it, but president could still put it through even if Duma disagreed with that proposal case: Boris Jelzin was afraid of his position so he fired all prime ministers and wanted a weak one – Kirilenko – Duma said twice no (he proposed him 2x in row), Jelzin’s third proposal: accept it or I dissolve Duma and none of you will ever get back- Accepted France: constitution says that the president is very strong in external policy (constitution written by Charles de Gaulle), but weak in internal policy President and parliament are elected for a 5-year term (used to be 7years for president)

ELECTORAL SYSTEMS
Democracy
a system with fair competitive electoral system
first used in ancient times
it wasn’t always considered as good
18th century
Americans didn’t want it
Democracy considered as direct democracy (they wanted republic because there was representation – senate) Even in representative democracy we can have direct democracy – referendum Problems with referendum

Sometimes people don’t have time to come and vote
There is not possibility of making a compromise – only YES or NO There should be a referendum about disintegration of Czechoslovakia, people would have wanted a common state but different one Czechs – strong federation vs. Slovaks – loose federation It could polarize people

Referendum shouldn’t be used on every day politics (only seldom) Important to have rules in the constitution, which should define when and how can referendum be used Electoral systems
there are plenty of them
electoral system is democratic if it is accepted by the public traditionally we recognize 2 types
Majoritarian logics
Parliament should have majority
PLURALITY SYSTEM: GB, USA (no other country)
Country is dived into constituencies (same as the number of members of the parliament) In every constituency is a competition – the person who...
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