“Abolishing multi-party democratic system – Is it the way forward to improve India’s Eco-Political environment”
In this paper we did a comparative analysis of various political systems and tried to determine if India should abolish multiparty system in order to incentivise their eco-political environment. India has a multiparty system characterized by a high degree of fragmentation and vigorous competition between parties. This raises the question as to whether such large multi-party coalitions are functional from the point of view of political stability, governance, and economic growth, particularly in a time of economic downturn in which the need for hard decisions might be unpopular in the short-term. We qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed the alternative forms of political systems that India can adopt and the consequences of such political systems on India’s economy.
In these 66 years since India’s Independence, the politics of India has undergone massive changes. The development of Indian Party System occurred in 3 different phases (Yadav 1997). In the Single Party Dominance phase from 1947 till 1967 Congress dominated both national and state politics. Congress emerged not as a political party but rather as the frontrunners of the independence struggle. The legacy of the Congress party and the charismatic leadership of Nehru helped Congress establish as the dominant party. Additionally during the first three elections, the success of the Congress was partly explained by the splitting of the opposition votes. Since the opposition to the Congress mainly obtained from the divisions in the same elite groups, their future policies and perceptions of the problems were the same. They could not emerge as a better alternative to the Congress, but act merely as "parties of pressure". This was a period of "consociational" dominance by the Congress party ruling with overwhelming majorities in the parliament and almost all the state legislatures and Congress secured nearly 70% of seats in the Lok Sabha. The second phase, Congress-Opposition phase from 1967 till 1993, Congress faced challenge from other parties at both national and state level. Congress was voted out of power at the national level first in 1977- 1979 by the Janta party led by Moraji Dessai and later in 1989- 1991 by National Front Coalition. During this period, the opposition parties therefore, used the strategy of forming united fronts to avoid conflicts among themselves. Other important factors which influence the voters at the time, were the growing economic crisis, the socialist path of development followed by the Congress, sharpening of social conflicts, devaluation of the Indian rupee, failure of the government's economic and political parties, famine in Bihar, stunted growth, growing discontentment among large sections of people, rising prices, prospering of the niche as a result of benefits accruing from the three five-year plans. Added to these centralization of the Congress rule and the rise of Nehru-Gandhi dynasty rule and personality cult hurt the image of the Congress. The declaration of emergency in 1975 by Fakiruddin Ali Ahmed on the recommendation of Mrs. Indira Gandhi, also didn’t help Congress’s popularity amongst the masses. The period also saw the rise of many contemporary leaders like Jayaprakash Narayan, E.M.S. Namboodiraoad, Atal Behari Vajpayee, and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia. According to Kothari, the 1967 elections "put the Congress System on trial" and marked the end of one party dominance system in India. The third phase, the multiparty party coalition phase started from 1993 onwards with Congress no longer at the focal point of the electoral competition. The period is associated with the rise of the regional parties at the state level and the Bharatiya Janta Dal at the national front. The Congress failed to achieve overall majority since 1989 and coalition...
References: Issues of multi party system in India referred from http://www.newsyaps.com/indias-problem-is-its-multi-party-system/2534/
The two party system referred from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_party_system
Single party system referred from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-party_state
The way ahead referred from http://www.academia.edu/4061722/US_Two-Party_Political_System_VS_Indias_Multiparty_Political_System_Should_India_Adopt_a_Two-Party_Political_System_like_in_The_United_States
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