Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by approximately 7.6 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosovo but also in other areas of the Balkans in which there is an indigenous Albanian population, including western Macedonia, southern Montenegro, southern Serbia and northwestern Greece. Albanian is also spoken in centuries-old Albanian colonies in southern Greece, southern Italy, Sicily, and Ukraine. Additionally, speakers of Albanian can be found elsewhere throughout the latter two countries resulting from a modern diaspora, originating from the Balkans, that also includes Scandinavia, Switzerland, Germany, United Kingdom, Turkey, Australia, New Zealand, Netherlands, Singapore, Brazil, Canada and the United States.
The two main dialects of Albanian language are Ghegs north and Tosk in the south, separated from the river Shkumbin. Geg and Tosk are branched at least a millennium , and their forms are far less mutual understanding. Geg has sub-variants are distinct, cuts which are the northern and eastern types, which includes those in the cities of Shkodra region of the former northeastren Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ,Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, and the isolated village of Arbanasi to the coast of Croatia, Dalmatia. "Arbanasi" established in the early eighteenth century by refugees from the region around the coastal town in Montenegro, Bar, has about 2,000 speakers of Albanian.
The literacy rate in Albania for the total population, age 9 or older, is about 99%. Elementary education is compulsory , but most students continue at least until a secondary education. Students must pass graduation exams at the end of the 9th grade and at the end of the 12th grade in order to continue their education. Most schools are public and financed through the government, but recently several private schools of various levels have been opened. There are about 5000 schools throughout the country. The academic year is divided into two semesters. The school week begins on Monday and ends on Friday. Depending on the academic level, the school year usually begins in mid-September or October and finishes around June or July. There is a winter break of about two weeks.
Primary education lasts 8 years. Most students continue to study secondary education 4 more years. The academic year is divided into 2 semesters. The scholastic year begins in September and finishes in June. Most schools are public and financed by the government, although several private schools have been opened recently. In Albania there are about 5.000 schools total. At the end of the 90s many schools were reconstructed to improve learning conditions, most of the reforms were made in large cities like Tirana capital. After Communism ended in Albania, old propaganda was removed from all the schools. In the transition to democracy radical changes have been made in education. More interest has been shifted to mathematics, sciences and the humanities. For the first time there is discussion of civil society, human rights, citizenship and laws, etc. Some schools have begun to use computers, whereas others do not have the material available for laboratory classes.
The people of Albania are very friendly and cordial towards the visitors coming to the country. The visitor is almost treated as a royalty if their invited by to any Albanian’s home. To shake hands while meeting a person is the tradition of the country. The country is known for its hospitable culture and traditions of courteousness. Albania is a home to people of different religions and the country do not have any official religion. But the maximum of them are Muslims who follow Islam and the other religions being Christianity and are the members of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Muslims in the country celebrate Ramadan, which is the Islamic month of fasting and Christians observe Easter and Christmas. Albanian is the national language of the country and also one of...
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