want implemented-in return for joining a coalition. Major parties need the minor parties and are therefore willing to bargain.
Thus the multiparty system favors the existence of minor parties by giving them incentives to persevere and disproportionate power if they will help form a government. In some multiparty parliamentary systems, parties run slates of candidates for legislative positions, and winners are determined,
in which the parties receive a proportion of the legislators corresponding to their proportion of the vote. In our single-member district, system, only the candidate with the most votes in a district or state takes office? Because a party does not gain anything by finishing second, minor parties in a two-party system can rarely overcome the assumption that a vote for them is a wasted vote:a For this reason an election system in which the winner is the candidate in a single-member district with the plurality deciding the winner, there is tendency to have two parties. This regularity is called Duuerger's
Although we have a primarily two- party system in the United States, we also have minor parties, sometimes called third parties. Candidate-based parties that arise around a candidate usually disappear when the charismatic personality does. In most states, candidates can get their names on the ballot as an Independent or minor party candidate by securing the required number of signatures on a nomination petition. This is hard to do. In 1992, Ross Perot spent his own money to build an organization of volunteers who put his name on the ballot in all 50 states. Minor party candidates such as Ralph Nader in 2000 secured their nominations as candidates of existing minor parties. Minor parties that are organized around an ideology usually persist over a longer time than those built around a particular leader. Communist, Prohibition, Libertarian, Right to Life, and Green parties are of the ideological type. Minor parties of both types come and go, and...
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