DIVERSITY WITHIN UNITY
Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society
Ja m e s A . B a n k s Peter Cookson G e n e va G ay Wi l l i s D. H aw l e y Jac q u e l i n e Jo r da n I rv i n e Sonia Nieto J a n e t Wa r d S c h o f i e l d Wa lt e r G . S t e p h a n
Center for Multicultural Education, College of Education University of Washington, Seattle
Copyright © 2001 by Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage retrieval system, without written permission from the copyright holder.
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DIVERSITY WITHIN UNITY
Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society Ja m e s A . B a n k s Peter Cookson G e n e va G ay Wi l l i s D. H aw l e y Jac q u e l i n e Jo r da n I rv i n e Sonia Nieto J a n e t Wa r d S c h o f i e l d Wa lt e r G . S t e p h a n
A publication of the Center for Multicultural Education, College of Education, University of Washington, Seattle
Executive Summary Teacher Learning Student Learning Intergroup Relations School Governance, Organization, and Equity Assessment Conclusion Essential Principles Checklist References The Authors
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A consensus panel of interdisciplinary scholars worked over a four-year period to determine what we know from research and experience about education and diversity. The panel was cosponsored by the Center for Multicultural Education at the University of Washington and the Common Destiny Alliance at the University of Maryland. The panel was supported by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and chaired by James A. Banks. The 12 major findings of the panel, which are called essential principles, constitute this publication. They are presented in this Executive Summary. This publication also contains a checklist designed to be used by educational practitioners to determine the extent to which their institutions and environments are consistent with the essential principles.
Principle 1: Professional development programs should help teachers understand the complex characteristics of ethnic groups within U.S. society and the ways in which race, ethnicity, language, and social class interact to influence student behavior. Student Learning
Principle 8: Teachers should help students acquire the social skills needed to interact effectively with students from other racial, ethnic, cultural, and language groups. Principle 9: Schools should provide opportunities for students from different racial, ethnic, cultural, and language groups to interact socially under conditions designed to reduce fear and anxiety. School Governance, Organization, and Equity
Principle 2: Schools should ensure that all students have equitable opportunities to learn and to meet high standards. Principle 3: The curriculum should help students understand that knowledge is socially constructed and reflects researchers’ personal experiences as well as the social, political, and economic contexts in which they live and work. Principle 4: Schools should provide all students with opportunities to participate in extra- and cocurricular activities that develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes that increase academic achievement and foster positive interracial relationships. Intergroup Relations
Principle 10: A school’s organizational strategies should ensure that decision-making is widely shared and that members of the school community learn collaborative skills and dispositions in...
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