Election System: A Contrast Between Bangladesh And USA.
Election system is one of the most important features of a country’s political system. It symbolizes some inner concept of a political system of a nation. I have chosen election system of US government to discuss and compare with that of Bangladesh. Both of these countries have some unique style of election procedure. That has made it really interesting for the learner of both systems to contrast and evaluate their own respective election system and understand its impact on government.
Bangladesh has got its independence on 1971. After that on 1972 Bangladesh got her 1st constitution. Initially according to primary constitution the government was parliamentary in nature. There was a system of having general election throughout the country. By this way people can chose Member of Parliament of their own area. The national parliament is unicameral and is consist of 300 members. Whole country is divided into 300 election zonal area. For division in some cases population is considered and in some other cases area is considered. The party with highest number of Member of Parliament will form the government. President will be the head of the state. Prime minister will be the head of government. By 4th amendment of constitution presidential form of government was introduced in place of the parliamentary system. Besides this, a one-party system in place of a multi-party system was introduced and the powers of the Parliament were curtailed. Afterwards there were military dictators till 1990. ON 1991 Bangladesh had its 1st acceptable form of election. They switched back to parliamentary form of government lead by prime minister. Party with majority in parliament will form the government and their team leader will be selected as a prime minister. By the 13th amendment in the constitution of Bangladesh, the caretaker government system was introduced in Bangladesh in 1996. Caretaker government must be an impartial government and the head of the Caretaker government is called the Chief Adviser They take charge three months before the election and comprised of notable civil personnel lead by the latest retired chief justice. He is known as chief advisor. Their main job is to conduct a smooth and fair election and handover the power to an elected government.
The system was appreciated for its effectiveness, but recently there was a huge debate whether this system should be used in next general election or not. The political parties were divided into two groups. This issue had a huge impact on the total governance of the country. Debate was raised because during their last duty, they took one year to conduct the election .That is a violation of constitution. Besides this as the head of this caretaker government is always the last retired chief justice, last government tried to amend the constitution by increasing the retirement age of chief justice, so that they get a head of caretaker government who will work in favor of them. So the present government abolished the caretaker form of government by 15th amendment of constitution.
There are some changes in election system also. Bangladesh has started using electronic voting system. Previously it was solely manual system. So after every election the losing party used to blame the wining party for corruption and they used to start not cooperating with the government. Without an active participation of an opposition party parliament is always ineffective.
USA has been using a special form of election procedure. They use the electorate college to elect their president. Here president has been the head of state from initial time. Here when a citizen votes for a president they actually vote for an elector who later votes to elect the president. That does not mean that citizen’s vote does not count. They elect the candidate of their choice and by this they determine the electoral vote for...
Bibliography: BANGLADESH TO USE ELECTRONIC VOTING SYSTEM FOR NEXT ELECTIONS. http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2011/jun/13/bangladesh-use-electronic-voting-system-next-elect/ .Retrieved:16th November, 2012.
Caretaker system abolished. The daily star, Bangladesh. http://www.thedailystar.net/newDesign/news-details.php?nid=192303. Retrieved: 16th November, 2012
CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE 'S REPUBLIC OF BANGLADESH
Election Process: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/elections/elecprocess.html . Retrieved: 16th November, 2012
Nizam Ahmed. Non-party caretaker government in Bangladesh: experience and prospect. University Press Ltd., 2004.
What makes a good electoral system? By Dr Joanna McKay, Nottingham Trent University. Published :April 19, 2011. Retrieved: 16th November, 2012.
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