What is Election, any Why have it?
Election is a mechanism (or process) by which people choose (or decide) their representatives at regular intervals of time. Why elections, so that voters can make choices
They can choose who will make law for them.
They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
They can choose the party whose policies will guide the
government and law making.
Constituency : The country is divided into different areas for purpose of election. These areas are called electoral constituencies.
Election Commission is responsible for direction and control of the entire process for conduct of elections
Voter List is a list of people who are eligible to vote. It is officially called Electoral Roll. List is prepared by a door to door survey and is revised every five years.
Nomination is process of filing the application form by candidates who wish to contest elections.
The campaign is the period when the political parties put forward their candidates and arguments with which they hope to persuade people to vote for their candidates and parties
EVM is the electronic voting machine, being increasingly used now a days instead of ballot boxes (paper based voting)
Lok Sabha is dissolved after every five years (it is dismissed or terminated)
Steps / Events in Election
Publishing of electoral rolls is a key process that happens before the elections and is vital for the conduct of elections.
The Election Commission normally announces the schedule of elections, and then after few days notifies the election
As soon as Notifications are issued, Candidates can start filing their nominations in the constituencies from where they wish to contest. These are scrutinised by the Returning Officer of the constituency Contesting candidates get at least two weeks for political campaign before the actual date of poll.
The polling is the actual process of casting the votes
The votes are counted and results are announced for each constituency
It is responsible for superintendence (monitoring), direction and control for conducting elections to Parliament and Legislature of every State and to the offices of President and Vice-President of India.
Election Commission of India is a permanent Constitutional Body. It currently consists of Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners.
The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners
The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through impeachment by Parliament
Political competition : good or bad?
Elections lead to political completion
among political parties
among candidates at constituency level
Demerits of political competition
It creates factionalism (conflict within group - groupism)
It creates a sense of disunity
Different parties or leaders often level allegations against each other Absence of long term sensible policies
Good people avoid joining politics to remain away from unhealthy competitions
Political competition : good or bad?
Constitution makers were aware of these demerits of political competition, but still they decided in favour of this system Why?
As in real life it is risky to depend upon or trust that all parties or elected members will always do best for the people
So it is better to reward those leaders who serve for people, and punish those who do not do so?
But how and who gives this reward or punishment?
People by re-electing or rejecting the candidate
There are mainly two types of elections
Elections are called general elections when they are held simultaneously (polling may be on same day or within few days). General elections are held on when legislative is dissolved (either on completion or some time before completion of full term)...
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