ETH305V Assign2 – 15 June -44496133 Page 1
Closing Date: 15 June
Question 1: Theoretical background
a) Describe the following concepts and give examples:
i) Prejudice (3)
Prejudice is a pre-held negative opinion, perception, or judgment a person holds or expresses against something or someone, without justification or analyzing facts. For example, when one meets a Muslim person, or sees someone dressed as a Muslim on a flight, one automatically perceives him/her to be a terrorist, and is suspicious or unreasonably “sure” that the Muslim person intends blowing up the plane. The negative perception was based purely on perception of the Muslim person’s religious belief, and not by knowing the person personally etc., thus stereotyping deals with ill-informed description of people whilst prejudice is based on unjustifiable feelings towards someone. Social conflicts can be generated by racism, prejudice, and stereotyping; therefore efforts need to be made to reduce racist tendencies and prejudice in order to correct stereotyping. Ways of achieving this include more awareness education, and contact between the stereotyped and those who form stereotypes, as well as the accurate portrayal of individuals and groups in literature. ii) Stereotypes (3)
Stereotyping takes place when we conjure mental categories where one deposits people, items or events into conceptually specified groups. Stereotypes are formed as a result of the overload of experiences we have, and the continuous deluge of information preset in implication that we are subjected to e.g. media. In order to keep us from being cognitively overwhelmed, our brain has developed the mechanism of stereotyping – creation of categories in which we conveniently deposit large amounts of information in order to organize and simplify the world. Stereotyping sometimes amounts to a rigid overgeneralised description of a person o group. When a stereotyped description is attached to a racial, cultural, or national group, it often implies that the characteristics are genetically determined and so cannot be changed. Stereotypes influence people’s perceptions of and behaviour towards groups other than their own. Examples of some common stereotypes include sayings like, “fat people are lazy”, or “athletes are dumb”, or “Jews are stingy”, or “Japanese are highly intelligent”.
iii) Racism (3)
Racism is the belief that one’s race is superior to another. This belief is based on the false premise that the physical attributes of a racial group determine the group’s intellectual characteristics as well as social behaviour. In many societies racism became institutionalized by way of established laws and practices. In addition to this is the aspect of cultural racism, which is the belief that customs art, music, literature, economics, language, traditions, and religious beliefs of minority groups are inferior to those of the dominant culture.
iv) Discrimination (3)
Discrimination refers to unjust perception of people which leads to unjust treatment of them. Discriminated people are treated differently through prejudice. It is unfair treatment of one person or group, usually because of prejudice about race, ethnicity, age, religion, or gender. v) Multicultural education (3)
Essentially multicultural education is about changing the nature of teaching and learning in order to create a suitable learning environment for learners from diverse backgrounds. Multicultural education refers to the recognition and inclusion of our diverse races and cultures into the education system in a just manner. It is an umbrella term which strives for equality in education for every racial, ethnic, and social class or group.
vi) Culture (3)
Culture is a complex human phenomenon often associated with material goods and artifacts; or with obvious visual aspects such as food and dress; or in reference to a particular group’s...
Bibliography: Lemmer, E., Meier, C., van Wyk, N., 2006. Multicultural Education: An Educator’s Manual, Van
Schaik Publishers, Paarl, South Africa
Meier, C., 2006. Only Study Guide for ETH305V Module: Multicultural Education: Programme:
Bed (Early Childhood Development) and (Intermediate and Senior Phase) : Pretoria:
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