Fundamentals of Oral Communication
Date: May 14, 2015___________________
Time: 2 hours
The final exam is 20% of the course grade.
Read the speech below and then answer the questions on the provided exam booklet.
Speech by Anthony Lake, UNICEF Executive Director, in Norway on Education OSLO, 8 May 2013
1. “I come today with a message to Norway on behalf of UNICEF, as well as the millions of children around the world who benefit from Norway’s support ― Tusen-takk.
2. Children around the world have no greater, nor more generous, champion than Norway. Your extraordinary support is helping millions of children go to school for the first time – a boy now learning how to read because of your generosity, a girl, so long denied the same education as her brothers, now taking her rightful place in the classroom. a teacher with the tools she needs to impart the skills and knowledge her students need.
3. Whether in a classroom, a makeshift shelter or a shady spot beneath a Mopane tree, educating a child is an investment in his or her future ― and in ours. Education creates entrepreneurs and a skilled workforce, more consumers, more prosperous communities and stronger, healthier, more just countries.
4. Between 1998 and 2008, 52 million more primary school children enrolled in school. A great result.
5. On the other hand, we often ― and properly ― hear about the 61 million children of primary school age who do not enjoy this benefit. Those living in poor, conflict-scarred countries. Those living with disabilities. Or ― far too often ― girls.
6. But what about an unpardonably larger number ― the estimated 250 million children of primary school age still unable to read a single word or do basic arithmetic? Half of these children are actually in school. They face not only poor teaching but also overcrowded classrooms, inadequate resources, and crumbling infrastructure. This is not only a waste of their potential ― it’s a waste of precious investment in education on a tragic scale.
7. And worse, in some areas, the children who need our help the most benefit the least from government financing. The World Bank has estimated that in Sub-Saharan Africa, just 10 per cent of the most educated benefit, disproportionately and inequitably, from 43 per cent of public spending on education. 8. Success depends on investing in precisely those children being left behind ― the 61 million who are not enrolled in school, the 250 million who are still unable to read or do basic arithmetic, the neglected and overlooked. 9. We know that investing in their education is perhaps the single best, most cost-effective opportunity to break cycles of poverty once and for all.
10. We can deliver food, immunizations and aid to children to safeguard their health and keep them alive. But without delivering education, we’ll return to communities, generation after generation, to help the ‘children of the children’ we failed to help in the first place. We’ll also perpetuate cycles of inequality within societies. If education is unequal, then growth is uneven ― and thus, not as sustainable, as IMF studies show. And those disparities will breed instability, unrest, and even violence.
11. Let me recommend to you a recent TED talk by Frans de Waal, a primatologist at Emory University. He showed a video clip of an experiment in which two monkeys performed the same task: passing a small ball through an opening in their cage. One monkey was rewarded with a nice piece of cucumber. The other was rewarded with an even tastier prize ― a grape. When the first monkey realized that he was missing out on a better reward, he repeatedly responded by throwing the pieces of...
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