The Tanzanian government's commitment to education as an integral part of its social and economic development started shortly after independence. Before independence, educational access was very restricted. The Arusha Declaration was followed in 1967 by the policy document "Education for Self-Reliance", in which education was assigned a seminal role in the transformation of Tanzania to an African socialist society. Universal Primary Education (UPE) was emphasized in the Musoma Declaration of 1974 as a way of transforming rural society and agriculture, from which it was acknowledged the vast majority of the population, would derive their livelihood. By the early 1980s, external shocks (oil crises, low coffee prices, drought, and war with Uganda) and deficient economic policy caused an economic crisis that needed to be resolved through economic restructuring and recovery. Tanzania's relationship, however, with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) was tense because of differing perspectives on the root causes of the economic crisis and how to handle it. Tanzanian policy makers attributed the crisis to exogenous shocks, while the World Bank and the IMF stressed deficient economic policies and institutions as the root cause. For the education sector, this period saw a huge reduction in resources that lead to a reversal of progress made towards Universal Primary Education during the 1970s and declining quantity and quality at all levels of education. Despite subsequent progress from the economic reform efforts of the late 1980s and 1990s, social indicators were stagnating, including progress towards Universal Primary Education. In 1995, the Ministry of Education prepared an Education and Training Master Plan. This was updated and further elaborated in a new phase of government policy embodied in the Education Sector Development Program (ESDP) of 1997 (revised in 2001), a program formulated to run from 1998 to 2007 and to have large scale impact that would accelerate progress on stagnating education indicators. The government also committed to the goals listed in the World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs, which was issued in Jomtien, Thailand in 2000. Within the larger Education Sector Development Program (ESDP), the government, together with civil society stakeholders and donors, formulated a Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) that took effect 2 January 2002 and ran to 2009. The World Bank supported the PEDP with a US$150 million Sector Adjustment Credit in 2001, which was supplemented by a US$50 million contribution by the Netherlands. The objectives of the Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) were to: (a) Expand school access; (b) improve education quality; and (c) increase school retention at the primary level. These objectives would be achieved through improved resource allocation and utilization, improved educational inputs, and strengthened institutional arrangements for effective primary education delivery. The Primary Education Development Program (PEDP) introduced, among other reforms, Capitation and Development Grants for direct disbursement to primary schools. The government's National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (2005) included a focus on education as part of its second cluster that deals with social wellbeing and quality of life. However the results have been exactly the opposite. Funding for public schools has been cut radically by the government resulting a drastic drop to resources and the quality of teachers. According to mothers of the children in Tanzania the young people have divided between to those, who have had privilege of education in private schools, and to vast majority who have been left uneducated, by the public schooling system. Education in Tanzania is provided both by the public sector and the private sector. The general structure is as follows: 2 years of pre-primary education for ages 5–6 (year...
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