Kenya became independent on 12 December 1963, and during the early years there was an economic recovery thanks to the policy of Kenyatta. At his death in 1978, Daniel Moi became President, and Kenya went into a deep crisis. Now, however, the annual growth of Kenya is between 5% and 6%, but the percentage of people living below the poverty line remains over 53%. Kenya's economy is mainly based on tourism (which is concentrated mainly in the capital) and agriculture (which is not efficient enough to guarantee food security). Although Kenya is the most industrially developed country in East Africa, manufacturing still accounts for only 14% of the gross domestic product. Industrial activity, concentrated around the three largest urban centres (Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu) is dominated by food-processing industries. From the point of view of energy, Kenya is almost self-sufficient, thanks to hydroelectric stations at dams along the upper Tana River, petroleum-fired plant on the coast and geothermal facilities at Olkaria. To become completely energy sufficient, Kenya aims to build a nuclear power plant by 2017. Regarding education, in January 2003, the Government of Kenya announced the introduction of free primary education. As a result, primary school enrolment increased by about 70%. Secondary and tertiary education enrolment has not increased proportionally because payment is still required for attendance. In 2007 the government issued a statement declaring that from 2008, secondary education would be heavily subsidised, with the government footing all tuition fees. This is the most important aspect for Kenya, because only through research Kenya can provide technological innovation.
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