Election plays a very significant role in our lives. As the famous saying goes “No man is an island” we cannot but to belong to a community, we even belong to a family which is the basic unit of the community or society. Within the community in which we belong, in a broader sense, there has to be a leader who guides and direct his/her people. On the other hand, the people also have to choose a particular leader who is committed and competent enough or else there will be chaos and confusion as what Jesus says, “They are like sheep without a shepherd.” Whatever sort of government the people have whether democratic, communism, parliamentary, and many others it will always involve election of a one leader who believe to serve rather than to be serve. Nevertheless, is the election of a leader guarantees peace and order? Perhaps it may be also a source of turmoil and havoc. As long as leadership and service involves merely for money and to make money, the people who are suppose to be serve suffers the consequences: injustices, poverty, corruption, and many others. Some of the evident manifestation of injustices (particularly before, during, and after the election) is the manipulation and the alteration of what has to be done to have a fair, clean, and reliable election. Here in the Philippines, we heard surveys and studies telling us how corrupt and dirty our politics is. There are times that these negative assertions become obviously seen and felt by the people whether rich or poor. During elections politicians do their best to make them appear to be competent to serve and rule the country. Sometimes if it turns out that their best is not good or effective enough to the majority of the people, the exploitation and the adjustment of our electoral system becomes a glimpse of hope for them to win. What pushes the researcher to research about this topic is to know some of the reasons why problems in electoral system still go on. Some of these problems exist even today, such as bribery or vote buying, flying voters, disenfranchisement of voters, infidelity of the poll watchers, dagdag bawas (addition–subtraction), alteration of certificates of canvass, disqualification of candidates, and many others. These problems, as they continue to grow, can paralyze and affect our understanding of democracy. Since the national election is approaching, one of the significance of this research is to give some awareness to the civic educators on some of the effects of their teaching styles or techniques to the poor. Civic educators may include ordinary voters, advertising executives, and even politicians themselves (in a broader sense) as they state their plans and platforms during their candidacy. They have significant role in the community that is to educate, to orient, and to interpret not just the rules and procedures during elections but also to campaign against bribery and other dirty strategies used during elections. This research will also help not just those who are registered voters but also to any concerned citizens to consider and to understand the situation of the poor voters and on how they perceive election. Is the poor’s perception on election similar to those who belong to the upper and middle classes? How is it going to affect our electoral systems? Is it morally adequate to label their notion on election, bribery, etc. as immoral? What can we possibly do to lessen or even to remove these developing problems? II. BRIBERY: WHAT IT IS
A. Outside the Church
This portion defines the word bribery in the secular manner or how the term is viewed by other people and communities. Bribery is widespread in many aspects of our daily lives such as politics, legal system, business, entertainment industry, medicine, sports, and many others.1 According to some dictionaries and encyclopedias, it involves money or gifts given to someone in exchange of something (a favor, etc.) and in order to...
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