Primary Education in India: Evolution, Structure and Development

Topics: Primary education, School, Primary school Pages: 20 (7567 words) Published: July 13, 2013
Date: 01 May 2013

Primary Education in India: Evolution, Structure and Development

Submitted to: Dr. Duru Arun Kumar

By: Rahul Jain 655/MP/11 Shashank Singh 667/MP/11 Sushant Soni 673/MP/11 ( MPAE- Section II)

CONTENTS
1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. HISTORY AND EVOLUTION OF PRIMARY SCHOOLING IN INDIA 4. STRUCTURE OF THE GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 5. THE INDIAN SOCIETY AND ITS ROLE IN THE EDUCATION SYSTEM 5.1 SOCIO-ECONOMIC DISPARITIES 5.2 RURAL-URBAN AND GENDER DISPARITIES 5.3 SCHEDULED CASTES AND TRIBES 6. THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SYSTEM 6.1 DISTRICT PRIMARY EDUCATION PROGRAMME (DPEP) 6.2 SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN (SSA) 6.3 MID DAY MEAL SCHEME (MDMS) 7. QUALITY AND QUANTITY 8. LOW COST PRIVATE SCHOOLS VS GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS 9. SUMMARY 10. CONCLUSION 11. INDEX 12. GLOSSARY 12.1 ABBREVIATIONS 12.2 DEFINITIONS 13. APPENDIX 14. REFERENCES

1. ABSTRACT
Education is one of the major factors which control a nation’s economic and scientific growth. In the report, an attempt has been made to analyze the primary education system of India and how it has evolved over the course of history and affected various sections of the society. To create the report, various data sources, secondary research, surveys and government legislations were used and referred. The report charts the evolution of the Indian education system in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the present condition of the system. A description of the features of the public education system and low cost private schooling system in India, both in terms of quantity and quality, has been provided with the help of various data sources and secondary research. It was found that the literacy rates, especially in the younger age groups, for both boys and girls are on an upward trend. However, the increase in literacy rates and education provided has not been uniform in various sections of society as well as various states. Similarly, literacy rates for girls, rural residents, and members of scheduled castes and scheduled tribes also lag behind those for boys, urban residents and the upper castes. Public expenditure on education in India has been rising over time and the government initiatives have resulted in a 9% increase in the literacy rate from 2001 to 2011. An analysis of the schooling system shows the growth in the literacy rates of the country since Independence and how it parallels with the increase in initiatives by the Indian government. It reflects non-uniform growth and disparity in the education imparted with respect to various sections, castes, gender and states in the country. The report also aims to increase the understanding of different perspectives and alternatives to the present system of primary schooling and education in the country.

2. INTRODUCTION
Primary education is the foundation on which the development of every country is built on. In every country in the world, education is acknowledged as a tool for development and prosperity. Education is viewed as an intrinsically valuable commodity and a means to economic and social wellbeing of an individual as well as an entire nation. 
 Most developed nations in the world also possess a sound primary and secondary education system. In the past few decades, the government of India has focused on provision of more schools ‘quantity’ and not on the ‘quality’. Various studies shown in the report will demonstrate that the percentage of ‘functionally literates’ is very low and the inadequacy of basic facilities and lack of infrastructure in schools. Government’s continuous efforts in the form of programs like ‘Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan’, DPEP, Mid-Day meals can be credited to achieve the above objectives. Literacy Rate of India has had an increase of 62% since independence, but individual literacy rates of various states show significant variations. In 2011, 95% population of 7+ of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra were literate, while Bihar had a literacy rate of 63.25% with a female literacy...

References: Research Papers and Publications: Dreze, Jean and Geetha Gandhi Kingdon (2001), ‘School Participation in Rural India,’ Review of Development Studies. Geetha Nambissan,2012. Low-Cost Private Schools for the Poor in India:Some Reflections Baladevan Rangaraju, James Tooley and Pauline Dixon, 2012:The Private School Revolution in Bihar: Findings from a survey in Patna Urban Leclercq, Francois, (2003), ‘Education Policy Reforms and the Quality of the School System: A Field Study of Primary Schools in Madhya Pradesh, India, Working Paper, University of Paris. Banerji, Rukmini (2003), ‘Making the Grade: Teach Children the Joy of Learning.’ Times of India, July 14, New Delhi. B J Koppar, S Balasubramanian, and Sanjay Kumar, August 23,2003. Primary Education in Rural Areas PROBE Team (1999), Public Report on Basic Education, Oxford University Press. Michael Kremer, Karthik Muralidharan, Nazmul Chaudhury, Jeffrey Hammer, F. Halsey Roger , 2004. TEACHER ABSENCE IN INDIA:A SNAPSHOT. Report to the World Bank. Kathryn Wheeler, C. Egerton- Warburton. 2012. SPOTLIGHT ON EDUCATION:Low Cost Private Schools.
Websites and Links: http://www.teindia.nic.in/Files/Articles/Indian_Education_Sysytem_By_Karthik_Murlidharan.pdf http://www.hks.harvard.edu/fs/lpritch/India/decentralization_education_india_varad.pdf http://www.dise.in/Downloads/Reports&Studies/Quality%20Concerns%20in%20Primary%20Educati on.pdf http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_states_ranking_by_literacy_rate http://primary-education-in-andhrapradesh.blogspot.in/2010/07/importance-of-primary-educationin.html
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