Rebuilding Democracy through Cooperation: A Study on the Role of Civil Societies in the Implementation of the Automated Elections (RA 9369).
Prof. Yasmin A. Tagorda
Department of Political Studies
College of Social Sciences and Humanities
Mindanao State University
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirement for the Course
Political Science 140 (Political Change)
Second semester, AY 2014-2015
Lorie Jhun Cubil Laurente
AB Political Studies
OUTLINE (PS 140)
Statement of the Problem
A. “Citizens Arm”: The Role of Civil Society Organizations in the Automation of Philippine Synchronized Election.
1. Voters Education and Information
2. Technical Assistance
3. Monitoring and Reporting
4. Postelection Audit
B. Other Measures of CSOs involvement in Electoral Reforms in the Philippines 1. National Electoral Reform Summit
2. Research Programs
C. Assessing the Success/Failure of CSOs Cooperation.
1. Statistical Records of Electoral Frauds 2010 & 2013 elections 2.
Reaction of the Filipino People.
Summary and Conclusion
Background of the Study
Elections are fundamental to democracy. Through the mechanism of elections, politicians are being held accountable, and are compelled to promote public policies that would reflect and represent the interest of the people. However, this democratic process has been continually distorted by electoral frauds which, consequently, result to people’s distrust to democracy itself. Manipulated voter’s lists, operation dagdag-bawas, casting votes from dead persons/relatives are some of the common forms of electoral frauds during Philippine elections1, especially in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (although the entire nations fall under the same condition). As a perceived solution to the problem, COMELEC (Commission on Election) and various civil societies made the decision to reform the fraud-vulnerable manual electoral system through information and communication technology or the ICT. The move towards electoral reform began in 1992 with the release of the “MODEX” or the Operation on Modernization and Excellence: COMELEC Visions and Strategy for 19921998. The document basically contains its eight key components which can be summarized as the COMELEC goal of formulating legal framework, together with the Congress, that would be a flexible basis for the modernization of the Philippine electoral system, systematization of the registration process, modernization of the electoral system from voting to proclamation to reduce human involuntary and voluntary errors, and upgrade election facilities for speed and accuracy.
Institute for Political and Electoral Reform, Restudying Filipino Voters Today, () Internet Source Accessed: November 8, 2014
To realize these objectives of the COMELEC, the latter availed consultancy with an American expert on election administration and two Filipino consultants from the Philippine Computer Society under the auspices of the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). Then the proposals of the consultants were exclusively demonstrated and pilot-tested in the 1996 ARMM elections with RA 8046 as its authorization. It was the first election in the Philippines to use optical mark reader (OMR) in counting ballots.
In December 1997, the RA 8436 was enacted authorizing the use of OMR in the May 1998 synchronized elections. The system envisioned in RA 8436 was practically the same with that of RA 8046, only that it aims to implement the new electronic voting system inclusively. However, automation was again implemented only in the ARMM. Moreover a partial automated elections were conducted during the 2001 legislative elections and in 2004 the COMELEC attempted to apply electronic voting for the synchronized...
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Pascual, Alfredo, The Promises and Perils of Automated Elections: 2013 and beyond, (Speech
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