Election system of the ARABE Spring
Article (5) of Constitution February 20, 2001: The political system of the Republic of Yemen is based on political and partisan pluralism in order to achieve a peaceful transformation of power. Article (43) Constitution: The citizen has the right to elect and nominate himself as a candidate in an election, as well as the right to demonstrate his opinion in a referendum. Elects on national level a head of state (the president) and a legislature. The president is elected for a seven-year term by the people. The Assembly of Representatives of Yemen (Majlis al-Nuwaab) has 301 members, elected for a six-year term in single-seat constituencies. Yemen is usually considered a dominant-party state with the General People's Congress in power. Opposition parties are allowed, but are widely considered to have no real chance of gaining power. Yemen has universal suffrage for those age 18 and older. The constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by parliament. International observers to be generally open and competitive, there were reports of irregularities, such as underage and duplicate voting and the use of state funds to support GPC candidates three parties dominate the political spectrum of the country : The General People’s CongressThe Yemenite Socialist Party (YSP)The Yemeni Congregation for Reform (YCR) Election Calendar
1993 parliamentary election, the first held after unification, the General People's Congress won 122 of 301 seats.:309 1999 presidential election, Saleh became Yemen's first directly-elected president in, winning 96.2% of the vote.:310 The only other candidate, Najeeb Qahtan Al-Sha'abi, was the son of Qahtan Muhammad al-Shaabi, a former President of South Yemen. Though a member of Saleh's General People's Congress (GPC) party, Najeeb ran as an independent. 2006 presidential election, held on 20 September Saleh won with 77.2% of the vote. His main rival, Faisal bin Shamlan, received 21.8%. Saleh was sworn in for another term on 27 September. 2011 Yemeni revolution followed other Arab Spring mass protests in early 2011 modify the constitution of Yemen so that Saleh's son could inherit the presidency. February 2012 presidential elections, Hadi took office for a two-year term upon winning the uncontested, in which he was the only candidate standing. A unity government – including a prime minister from the opposition – was formed. Al-Hadi will oversee the drafting of a new constitution, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections in 2014.
Established by the 1971 Constitution, amended in 1980 and 2007, the Egyptian institutional framework enshrines a presidential system with a strong executive and a weak legislative power. Bicameral Parliament type:
The People’s Assembly (Majlis al-Chaab):
It has 454 members. 444 are elected by universal suffrage to serve a 5-year term and 10 are chosen directly by the president. Since 2007, the budget must be accepted by the Assembly to be validated (art. 115). The Assembly must also agree on constitutional amendments, on certain organic laws and on the ratification of peace treaties and international conventions (art. 294). The Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura):
It has 264 members. 176 of them, ie two thirds, are elected by universal suffrage to serve a 6-year term and are renewed by half every 3 years. The remaining third, ie 88 members, is directly appointed by the president for a term of 6 years. Created by a constitutional amendment in 1980 at the initiative of the President, this institution has mainly an advisory role. This honorific Assembly especially allows the president to thank some loyal supporters. The president is elected to serve a 6-year term without renewal limitations. Before 2005, presidential election was conducted by indirect suffrage, by...
References: http://www.yemen-nic.info/english_site/yemen/dostor.php, Presidency of the Republic;
Wikipedia, Election system;
http://www.medea.be/en/countries/, European Institute for Research on Mediterranean and Euro-Arab Cooperation
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