school based management

Topics: High school, Primary education, Propensity score Pages: 71 (8344 words) Published: September 30, 2013
Public Disclosure Authorized

Policy Research Working Paper

Public Disclosure Authorized


The Effects of School-based Management
in the Philippines
An Initial Assessment Using Administrative Data

Public Disclosure Authorized

Public Disclosure Authorized


Nidhi Khattri
Cristina Ling
Shreyasi Jha

The World Bank
Independent Evaluation Group
East Asia Education Sector Unit
World Bank Institute
March 2010

Policy Research Working Paper 5248

This paper estimates the effect of school-based
management on student performance in the Philippines
using the administrative dataset of all public schools in
23 school districts over a 3-year period, 2003–2005. The
authors test whether schools that received early schoolbased management interventions (training in schoolbased management and direct funding for school-based reforms) attained higher average test scores than those

that did not receive such inputs. The analysis uses schoollevel overall composite test scores (comprising all subject areas tested) and test scores in three separate subject areas: English, math, and science. Their preferred estimator,

difference-in-difference with propensity score matching,
shows that the average treatment effect of participation in
school-based management was higher by 1.5 percentage
points for overall composite scores, 1.2 percentage
points for math scores, 1.4 percentage points for English
scores, and 1.8 percentage points for science scores.
These results suggest that the introduction of school-

based management had a statistically significant, albeit
small, overall positive effect on average school-level test
scores in 23 school districts in the Philippines. The paper
provides a first glimpse of the potential for school-based
management in an East Asian context based on available
administrative data. The authors suggest that the next
order of research is to answer policy-related questions
regarding the reforms: what aspects of the reform lead
to desired results; are there differential effects across
subpopulations; and what are the potential downsides to
the reforms? The Philippines is embarking on a nationwide implementation of school-based management and the authors recommend that mechanisms for rigorous
evaluations be advanced simultaneously. Such evaluations
should not only provide more accurate estimates of the
effectiveness of the reforms, but also help answer policyrelated questions regarding design and implementation of those reforms in different socio-cultural contexts.

This paper—a joint product of East Asia Education Sector Unit, Independent Evaluation Group; and the World Bank Institute—of a broader Bank-wide effort to promote rigorous and analytical approaches to monitoring and evaluation. Policy Research Working Papers are also posted on the Web at The author may be contacted at

The Policy Research Working Paper Series disseminates the findings of work in progress to encourage the exchange of ideas about development issues. An objective of the series is to get the findings out quickly, even if the presentations are less than fully polished. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank and its affiliated organizations, or those of the Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent.

Produced by the Research Support Team

The Effects of School-based Management in the Philippines:
An Initial Assessment Using Administrative Data
Nidhi Khattri1
Cristina Ling
Shreyasi Jha

Keywords: school-based management, decentralization, evaluation, propensity score matching, administrative data


 Nidhi Khattri,...

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