Education in Singapore is managed by the Ministri of Education (MOE) which controls the development and administration of state school receiving government funding, but also has an advisory and supervisory role in respect of private school. For both private and state schools, there are variations in the extent of autonomy in their curriculum, scope of government aid and funding,tution burden on the students, and admission policy. Education spending usually makes up about 20 per cent of the annual natinal budget which subsidises state education and government-assisted private education for Singaporean citizens and funds the edusave programme, the costs for which are significantly higher for non-citizens. In 2000 the Compulsory Education Act codified compulsory education for children of primary school age (excepting those with disabilities), and made it a criminal offence for parents to fail to enroll their children in school and ensure their regular attendance. Exemptions are allowed for homeschooling or full-time religious institutions, but parents must apply for exemption from the Ministry of Education and meet a minimum benchmark. The main language of instruction in Singapore is English, which was officially designated the first language within the local education system in 1987. English is the first language learned by half the children by the time they reach preschool age and becomes the primary medium of instruction by the time they reach primary school. Although Malay, Mandarin Chinese and Tamil are also official languages, English is the language of instruction for nearly all subjects except the official Mother Tongue languages and the literatures of those languages; these are generally not taught in English, although there is provision for the use of English at the initial stages. Certain schools, such as secondary schools under the Special Assistance Plan (SAP), encourage a richer use of the mother tongue and may occasionally teach subjects...
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