The Role and Authority Women Have in Ministry

Topics: New Testament, First Epistle to Timothy, Christianity Pages: 15 (4887 words) Published: November 26, 2012
LIBERTY BAPTIST THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY

The Role and Authority Women Have in Ministry

A Research Paper Submitted to
Dr. Michael D. Stallard
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for completion of the course,

THEO 592
SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY II
201220 Spring 2012 THEO 530-B19 LUO

By
John Theodore Zachariah
Student ID# 20004547

Lynchburg, Virginia
March 2012
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction …..……………………………………………………….……………………….1 Prominent Women in the New Testament …………………...……………………………….2 New Testament Teachings …………………………………………………………………….4 First Corinthians 14:34-35 ……………………………………………………………………5 First Timothy 2:11-12 ………………………………………………………………………....7

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………………………....11

Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………………….…13

Copyright © 2012 by John Theodore Zachariah
All rights reserved
Introduction
Women have long played an important role in the shaping the nation of Israel which has shaped the Christian church of today. Not only were they daughters, wives, concubines, mothers, and grandmothers of men but they were also special agents of the Lord. It was the Hebrew midwives Shiphrah and Puah who refused the Pharaoh’s order to kill all males that preserved the life of Moses. (Exodus 1) It was the widow of Zerephath who offered food and lodging to Elijah. (1 Kings) There have been women who prophesied and served as spokeswomen for God such as Miriam (Exodus 15) and Huldah. (2 Kings 22; 2 Chron. 24) There were women such as Deborah who served as both a prophet and a judge doling out justice from under a palm tree for the people of Ephraim during the rule of Jabin. (Judges 4) Women such as these received the call of God to serve Him in the roles he directed, roles which were typically filled by men.

When Jesus of Nazareth assumed his ministry he brought to the nation of Israel a new and unique way of doing things. Sent into the world to serve all of mankind Jesus called forth both men and women alike to serve him and the Lord God our Creator. The roles in which women today serve in the ministry of Jesus Christ our Lord and Savior are as limitless as God’s love itself. But a woman’s participation in these roles has been constrained by the church’s understanding of these roles. God fashioned man and woman in His image to be equal partners in exercising His dominion over the beasts of the field, the birds of the air and the fish in the seas. What we see today is that dominion has been replaced by domination. Not only is it humans over all the beasts and the birds and the fish but it is also male over female, this race over that, and rich over poor.

When we as fellow believers in Christ seek to perceive what roles God has for our lives we must also take into account the creation story and the stories told of some of history’s most amazing women. Can we deny the fact that it is God’s intent that men and women should be co-laborers doing His work here on earth? Should we deny God’s will when He empowers women to serve in roles that have traditionally belonged to men? Is it our intent therefore to call God’s judgment into question? The purpose of this paper is to argue for the ordination of women in the church.

Prominent Women in the New Testament
The New Testament records various women who ministered in the early Church Age. They include Tabitha, also known as Dorcas, who was called a disciple and entered into a ministry of helps (Acts 9:36) It was known that Phillip the evangelist had four virgin daughters who were prophetesses. (Acts 21:8f) And it was Paul who in his ministry to spread the gospel labored with Euodias and Syntyche. (Phil. 4:2f)

Paul acknowledges Priscilla as a servant of Jesus Christ as he greets numerous others ministering in the name of the Lord, many of them women. In Romans 16:3 Paul says “Greet Priscilla and Aquilla my fellow workers in Christ Jesus.” An item of note here is the listing of the names Priscilla and Aquilla....

Bibliography: Bailey, Kenneth E. “Women in the New Testament: A Middle Eastern Cultural View.” Theology Matters 6, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2000): 1-11.
Cook, James I. The Church Speaks: Papers of the Commission on Theology Reformed Church in America. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2002.
Chrysostom, John. A Select library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. XII, ed. Phillip Schaff. New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1908.
Chrysostom, John. Saint Chrysostom’s Homilies on Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Part 13, ed. Philip Schaff. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2004.
Ellis, E. Earle. The Making of the New Testament Documents. Boston: Brill Academic, 2002.
Gotlieb, Roger E. This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature and Environment. Abingdon: Routledge, 1995.
Grentz, Stanley J. and Denise Kjesbo, Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in Ministry. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1995.
Harris, Timothy J. “Why Did Paul Mention Eve 's Deception? A Critique of P. W Bameit 's ‘Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2.’” EQ 62 (Apr-Jun 1990): 335-52.
Kirk, J.R. Daniel. Jesus Have I Loved, But Paul?: A Narrative Approach to the Problem of Pauline Christianity. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011.
Kroeger, Richard and Catherine. Women, Elders…Sinners or Servants. Louisville: Council on Women and the Church, The United Presbyterian Church in the USA, 1981.
Krupp, Joanne. Woman: God’s Plan Not Man’s Tradition. Salem: Preparing the Way Publishers, 1999.
Lea, Thomas D. and Hayne P. Griffin, 1, 2 Timothy, Titus – The New American Commentary, vol. 34. Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992.
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Spencer, Aída Dina Besançon. “Eve at Ephesus: Should Women Be Ordained as Pastors According to the First Letter to Timothy 2:11-15?” JETS 17, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 215-22.
Walker, William O. “Interpolations in the Pauline Letters,” from The Pauline Canon, ed. Stanley E. Porter. Boston: Brill Academic, 2004.
Wilshire, Leland E. "1 Timothy 2:12 Revisited: A Reply to Paul W. Barnett and Timothy J. Harris." EQ 65.1 (Jan.-Mar 1993): 43-55.
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[ 2 ]. Joanne Krupp, Woman: God’s Plan Not Man’s Tradition (Salem: Preparing the Way Publishers, 1999), 110.
[ 3 ]. Justin J. Meggitt, Paul, Poverty and Survival (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1998), 150.
[ 4 ]. J. Paul Sampley, Paul in the Greco-Roman World: A Handbook (Harrisburg: Trinity Press International, 2003), 125.
[ 5 ]. J.R. Daniel Kirk, Jesus Have I Loved, But Paul?: A Narrative Approach to the Problem of Pauline Christianity (Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2011), 124.
[ 6 ]. John Chrysostom, A Select library of the Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers of the Christian Church, vol. XII, ed. Phillip Schaff (New York: The Christian Literature Company, 1908), 555.
[ 8 ]. Richard and Catherine Kroeger, Women, Elders…Sinners or Servants (Louisville: Council on Women and the Church, The United Presbyterian Church in the USA, 1981), 10-11.
[ 9 ]. Roger E. Gotlieb, This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature and Environment (Abingdon: Routledge, 1995), 337.
[ 10 ]. Richard Oster, 1 Corinthians (Joplin: College Press, 1995), 342.
[ 11 ]. E. Earle Ellis, The Making of the New Testament Documents (Boston: Brill Academic, 2002), 433.
[ 12 ]. William O. Walker, “Interpolations in the Pauline Letters,” from The Pauline Canon, ed. Stanley E. Porter (Boston: Brill Academic, 2004), 232.
[ 13 ]. Arthur G. Patzia, The Emergence of the Church: Context, Growth, Leadership and Worship (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 179.
[ 14 ]. Stanley J. Grentz and Denise Kjesbo, Women in the Church: A Biblical Theology of Women in Ministry (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1995), 128.
[ 16 ]. Kenneth E. Bailey, “Women in the New Testament: A Middle Eastern Cultural View,” Theology Matters 6, no. 1 (Jan/Feb 2000): 8.
[ 17 ]. John Chrysostom, Saint Chrysostom’s Homilies on Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon, Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Part 13, ed. Philip Schaff (Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing, 2004), 441.
[ 18 ]. Thomas D. Lea and Hayne P. Griffin, 1, 2 Timothy, Titus – The New American Commentary, vol. 34 (Nashville: Broadman Press, 1992), 98.
[ 19 ]. T. Scott Womble, Beyond Reasonable Doubt: 95 Theses Which Dispute the Church’s Conviction Against Women (New York: Xulon Press, 2009), 187.
[ 20 ]. Ben Witherington, Letters and Homilies for Hellenized Christians: A Socio-rhetorical Commentary on Titus, 1-2 Timothy, and 1-3 John (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2006), 226.
[ 21 ]. Phillip B. Payne, “Libertarian Women in Ephesus: A Response to Douglas J. Moo’s Article ‘1 Timothy 2:11-15: Meaning and Significance,’” TrinJ 02:2 (Fall 1981): 172-73.
[ 22 ]. Elizabeth A. McCabe, An Examination of the Isis Cult with Preliminary Exploration into New Testament Studies (Lanham: University Press of America, 2008), 101.
[ 23 ]. A.C. Perriman, “What Eve Did, What Women Shouldn’t Do: The Meaning of Auqentew in 1 Timothy 2:12,” TynBul 44.1 (1993): 138.
[ 24 ]. Timothy J. Harris, “Why Did Paul Mention Eve 's Deception? A Critique of P. W Bameit 's ‘Interpretation of 1 Timothy 2,’” EQ 62 (Apr-Jun 1990): 342.
[ 25 ]. Leland E. Wilshire, "1 Timothy 2:12 Revisited: A Reply to Paul W. Barnett and Timothy J. Harris," EQ 65.1 (Jan.-Mar 1993): 48.
[ 26 ]. Aida Dina Besancon Spencer, “Eve at Ephesus: Should Women Be Ordained as Pastors According to the First Letter to Timothy 2:11-15?” JETS 17, no. 4 (Fall 1974): 219.
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