THE THEOPNEUSTY OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURE
The Doctrine of Inspiration and Its Critics
Clements Romanus a church father refers to the scripture as being true through the Holy Spirit. Augustine refers to scripture as god’s handwriting or a letter from heaven. Aside from the term inspiration he also used dictation and direction. He gives reference to inspiration perhaps as a consequences of the translation into Latin of 2 Timothy 3:16. But He does not fix these term dogmatically because He also refers to the inspiration of faith and love. He recognizes the fact that each of the evangelist recorded Christ works and did in their own way and style. In this connection Polman points out that in Augustine’s mind, the Bible is entirely the work of the Holy Spirit and at the same time the entirely work of the Bible authors. To Augustine the Bible is the supreme authority and those who do not believe this cannot be Christian and cannot be save. Inspiration implies the reliability and the divine authority of Scripture ( c.f. Bavinck, R.D., 1-402-5; Polman 1905, 37-74). In medieval theology, the doctrine of the Holy Scripture was hardly developed any further. But there was a movement of the council that God is the author of the Old Testament and the New Testament. The saints of both testaments spoke through inspiration of the Holy Spirit. ( Florence, 1439) In the time of reformation Luther and Calvin believed that the Bible is not only the source of information about truth and precepts but in Scripture they encounter the living God and His message. To Luther, the Bible is a personal document of the spirit. The Holy Spirit makes the author to speaks the truth meaning that God is the prime mover or what we call the divine causality, although he accommodates himself to human understanding. For the Reform view especially Calvin- God is the author of what the Scripture teaches. God has spoken through the mouth of Moises, David, and Peter. He also employed expressions such as dictation, and inspiration and call the writers of the book of the Bible “secretaries” of the Holy Spirit. It emphasize that the writers did not invent anything, but that they were led and controlled by the Holy Spirit. They recorded immediately and faithfully what He inspired in them. There were also some biblical criticism regarding the inspiration of the Bible especially in the time of enlightenment wherein the Bible is no longer considered to be a divine and treated as an ordinary book. J.S. Senler wrote a book about the full study of the canon and G.E. Lessing submitted his new hypothesis concerning the evangelist and treating them purely human authors of history. In the 19th century, Bible criticism became more radical. These continual attack reflects the spiritual climate of our times and reveals in the first instance the enmity of the human heart which not only manifested in the criticism of the Scripture but also in dead orthodoxy. Another critic of the inspiration of the Bible is Karl Barth. He did not believe that the word of God is tied to the Bible for Barth the Bible only holds, encloses, limits, and surrounds it, that is the indirectment of the identity of the revelation of the Bible. Thus, the human words are the instrument by which the Bible’s aims at becoming a word. The Bible as such of course- is only a sign. According to him the Bible is not a word of God and it becomes the word of God to the believers a Christ revealed through it. The word of God for Barth is personal not proportional, it is Christ. The Bible is simply a witness to Christ. Christ is God’s revealation, the Bible is only a falliable human record of that revelation. So in other word according to him the Bible is an errand human instrument used by God as a witness to his divine word who is Christ. Scripture Proof for Theopnuesty
Second Timothy 3:16 says “all Scripture is inspire by God- means that the entire Holy Scripture has been inspired by God’s Spirit and the word “inspired”...
References: J. van Genderen and W.H. Velema, Concise Reformed Dogmatics
Louis Berkhof, Systematic Theology
Norman L. Geisler and William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible
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