To a large extent, Hong Kong became a modernized society in the period of 1970 – 1997 according to the political and economic development of Hong Kong in this period.
In terms of politics, political modernization is the transformation from traditional autocratic system to modern democratic system. The democratic system included the form of representative government, popular election and multi-party system and Hong Kong could mostly achieve it in the period of 1970 – 1997.
First, there was democratic development at the local level. The Unofficial Members of the Executive and Legislative Council was formed to handle publich complaints. All government department set up various consultative committees to collect public opinions. In 1973, all the members of Urban Council were unofficial member. In the early 1980, the government carried out reforms in district administration. In 1982, HK was divided into18 administrative districts, each with a District Board. In 1986, the Regional Council was established. In 1994, apart from the ex-officio members, all District Board members were elected. In 1995, all appointed seats in the Urban and Regional Councils were cancelled and all members were elected by geographical consituencies. The voting age was lowered from 21 to 18. In both Councils, there was an increasing number of official and local Chinese members.
Second, the Legislative Council became more representative. In 1985, the Legislative Council held its first indirect election. In 1991, it held its first direct election. In 1991, the number of elected members(39) far exceeded the number of appointed members(21). In 1992, Governor Chris Patten wanted to introduce radical changes to speed up the establishment of representative government. In 1995, all 60 members were elected and 1/3 of them were returned by direct election.
Third, more political commentary group, pressure group and political parties were formed. Some trade unions became political parties in...
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