Turkey ICT

Topics: Education, Primary education, School Pages: 23 (5870 words) Published: November 18, 2014
Bell (1973), Reich (1991), and Toffler (1980) have identified several massive changes that today's society has undergone, from the agrarian age to the industrial age, and now entering into what some call the information age (cited in Reigeluth, 1995). These drastic changes certainly affect today's education systems at various levels. At the beginning of this century, education has faced important challenges. For instance, how to provide high quality of education and training has become an important question to be answered in the 21st century for all human beings who need education and can profit from it in the most cost-effective way. Education systems have tried to over come the challenges by developing new approaches. Information and communication technology (ICT) has a critical role in the new approaches as enhancing the dissemination of information and helping to meet these challenges. From the beginning of the information age, ICT has had a critical role in enhancing the quality of education. The role of ICT is to serve education in particular, by helping students to learn and teachers to perform their teaching profession more effectively. As a consequence of rapid developments in a short time, ICT has entered the interest areas of many disciplines. The need to incorporate ICT into education is now inescapable, largely because of the growth of the Internet. In this context, integration of ICT into education is a critical issue . To be able to integrate ICT in primary education curricula and teacher education programs many action plans were adopted and standards were determined over the world. While the pace of such developments varies greatly, there is no doubt that all countries of the EU (European Union) are now attaching very high priority to ICT in their national educational policies, and seeking to adjust the way their education systems are organized and function as a result (EURYDICE, 2001a). Similarly, in Turkey, with the National Education Development Project, curricula of teacher education institutions were redesigned to be able to integrate ICT and to improve the quality of teacher education programs (YOK, 1998). Education is the main concern of governments in all the EU countries and Turkey; however, the structures of education systems show differences significantly, both in the EU countries and in Turkey. In the process of joining the EU, there is a need for Turkey to reveal the educational policies related to integration of ICT and build up a road map pertaining to these policies. Therefore this study aims to compare the EU countries and Turkey in integration of ICT into (1) primary education curricula, and (2) teacher education programs. The EU countries and Turkey have similar characteristics; however, it is clear that many characteristics of the EU countries and Turkey are different in terms of demographic and geographical settings, economic conditions, and educational systems. Before presenting the results of this study, it is better to clarify the characteristics of the EU countries and Turkey in regard to demographic and geographical settings, economic conditions, and educational systems. Demographic and Geographical Settings: The EU consists of 15 countries and the total land area is 3.193.000 km2 and the population estimate is 379.448.000 people. Turkey's land area is 770. 000 km2 and the population estimate is 65.300.000 people. Turkey has a land area which is larger than that of each of the 15 the EU member countries where its population is also higher than those countries but Germany (see Table 1). Economic Conditions: When economy is concerned there are considerable differences between Turkey and the EU countries. The average of Gross National Income per Capita (GNP) in the EU member countries is 24.463 � where it is only 3.200 � in Turkey. Besides all, the PC distribution in Turkey is about 32 PCs (personal computer) per 1000 people where this ratio is 278 PCs per 1000 people in the EU member...
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