Women education in Pakistan
Education plays a pivotal role in developing human capital in any society. Education has become a universal human right all around the globe. Article thirty seven of the Constitution of Pakistan stipulates that education is a fundamental right of every citizen, but still gender discrepancies exist in educational sector. According to Human Development Report (2011) of United Nations Development Program, ratio of female to male with at least secondary education is 0.502, and public expenditure on education amounts to only 2.7% of the GDP of the country.(2) Patriarchal values heavily govern the social structure in Pakistani society. Home has been defined as a woman's legitimate ideological and physical space where she performs her reproductive role as a mother and wife, while a man dominates the world outside the home and performs his productive role as a breadwinner. Men and women are conceptually segregated into two distinct worlds. The household resources are allocated in the favor of sons (male members of the family) due to their productive role. Education for boys is prioritized vis-a-vis girls, because it is perceived that boys must be equipped with educational skills to compete for resources in public arena, while girls have to specialize in domestic skills to be good mothers and wives, hence, education is not that important for girls. This gender division of labor has been internalized by the society, and girls/women do not have many choices for themselves that could change these patriarchal realities of their lives. Society does not allow girls/women to develop their human capabilities by precluding them from acquiring education. Lack of emphasis on the importance of women's education is one of the cardinal features of gender inequality in Pakistan.(3) The Human Development Report (HDR) listed Pakistan in the category of "low human development" countries with a female literacy rate of thirty percent, and Pakistan has ranked 145 in the world in terms of human development.(2) -------------------------------------------------
Importance of women's education
Education has been of central significance to the development of human society. It can be the beginning, not only of individual knowledge, information and awareness, but also a holistic strategy for development and change. (4) -------------------------------------------------
Education is very much connected to women's ability to form social relationships on the basis of equality with others and to achieve the important social good of self-respect. It is important, as well, to mobility (through access to jobs and the political process), to health and life (through the connection to bodily integrity). Education can allow women to participate in politics so they can ensure that their voices and concerns are heard and addressed in the public policy. It is also crucial for women's access to the legal system.(5) Education is a critical input in human resource development and is essential for the country's economic growth. It increases the productivity and efficiency of individuals and it produces skilled labor-force that is capable of leading the economy towards the path of sustainable growth and prosperity. The progress and wellbeing of a country largely depends on the choices of education made available to its people. It can be one of the most powerful instruments of change. It can help a country to achieve its national goals via producing minds imbue with knowledge, skills and competencies to shape its future destiny. The widespread recognition of this fact has created awareness on the need to focus upon literacy and elementary education program, not simply as a matter of social justice but more to foster economic growth, social well-being and social stability.(6) Women's education is so inextricably linked with the other facets of human development that to make it a priority is to...
References: 3. Chaudhry, I. & Rahman, S. (2009). "The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Rural Poverty in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis".
5. Nussbaum, M. (2003). Women 's Education: A Global Challenge. University of Chicago.
6. Mishra R. C. (2005). Women Education. New Delhi: A.P.H. Publishing Corporation.
7. Goel, A. (2004). Education and Socio-Economic Perspectives of Women Development and Empowerment.
8. Klasen, S. and Lamanna, F. (2008), The Impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth in Development Countries: Updates and Extensions.
9. Klasen, Stephan (1999). "Does Gender Inequality Reduce Growth and development? Evidence from Cross-Country Regressions",
11. Chaudhry, I.S. (2007), "Impact of Gender Inequality in Education on Economic Growth: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan", The Pakistan Horizon Vol. 60, No. 4, 2007.
12. Chaudhry, I.S. (2009), "Poverty Alleviation in Southern Punjab (Pakistan)
15. Khan, S (2007). "Gender Issues in higher education in Pakistan". Bulletin, Issue 162, 2007.
16. Why the Taliban Shot the Schoolgirl| Leon Wieseltier| October 19, 2012 | accessed 12.11.212
18. Alex Rodriguez (26 October 2012). "Taliban 's attack on Pakistan education goes beyond one girl]". Los Angeles Times.
19. Huma Yusuf (25 October 2012). "In the Taliban 's sights". The New York Times.
21. Government of Pakistan (2006). http://www.moe.gov.pk/
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